It has been shown the lead intoxication of growing rats result in increase the cavity and membrane carbohydrate hydrolysis and glucose absorption from small intestine which leads to hyperglicemiya. The oral treatment of intoxicated rats with inulin or lactulose results in decrease of carbohydrate assimilation in small intestine and content glucose level in blood. The correcting effect of lactulose on normalization of carbohydrate assimilation is more expressed in compare with inulin. So, inulin and/or lactulose take part in improving of adaptation of the carbohydrate assimilation system in the small intestine during intoxication with lead ions in growing rats. This suggests the prospect of their use as physiologically acceptable additives to stabilize carbohydrate digestion and blood glucose levels in lead and, possibly, other heavy metal intoxication in the growing organism.
1. Cani P.D., Lecourt E., Dewulf E.M. Gut microbiota fermentation of prebiotics increases satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal. Am J Clin Nutr., Vol. 90, Issue 5, 1236–1243 (2009).
2. Caplan A., Fett N., Rosenbach M., Werth V.P., Micheletti R.G. Prevention and management of glucocorticoid-induced side effects: A comprehensive review. Gastrointestinal and endocrinologic side effects. Am acad dermatol., Vol. 76, 11–16 (2017).
3. Chen Y.W., Yang C.Y., Huang C.F., Hung D.Z., Leung Y.M., Liu S.H. Heavy metals, islet function and diabetes development. Islets, Vol. 1, Issue 3, 169–176 (2009).
4. Cheng Y., Willett W.C., Schwartz J., Sparrow D., Weiss S., Hu H. Relation of Nutrition to Bone Lead and Blood Lead Levels in Middle-aged to Elderly Men. Am J Epidemiol., Vol. 147, No. 12, 1162–1174 (1998).
5. D'Errico I., Salvatore L., Murzilli S., Lo Sasso G., Latorre D., Martelli N., Egorova A.V., Polishuck R., Madeyski-Bengtson K., Lelliott C., Vidal-Puig A.J., Seibel P., Villani G., Moschetta A. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α) is a metabolic regulator of intestinal epithelial cell fate. PNAS, Vol. 108, Issue 16, 6603–6608 (2011).
6. Dahlqvist A. Assay of intestinal disaccharidases. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., Vol. 44, Issue 2, 169–172 (1984).
7. Daisley B.A., Monachese M., Trinder M., Bisanz J.E., Chmiel J.A., Burton J.P., Reid G. Immobilization of cadmium and lead by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 mitigates apical-to-basolateral heavy metal translocation in a Caco-2 model of the intestinal epithelium. Gut Microbes. Vol. 10(3), 321–333 (2019).
8. De Lisle R.C., Sarras M.P., Hidalgo J., Andrews G.K. Metallothionein is a component of exocrine pancreas secretion: implications for zinc homeostasis. Am J Physiol., Vol. 271, 1103–1110 (1996).
9. Debnath B., Waikhom S.S., Manna K. Sources and toxicological effects of lead on human health. Indian Journal of Medical Specialities, Vol. 10, Issue 2, 66–71 (2019).
10. Doumouchtsis K.K., Doumouchtsis S.K., Doumouchtsis E.K., Perrea D.N. The effect of lead intoxication on endocrine functions. J Endocrinol In., Vol. 32, Issue 2, 175–183 (2009).
11. Drozdowski L.A., Clandinin T., Thomson A.B.R. Ontogeny, growth and development of the small intestine. Under pediatric gastroenterology. World J Gastroenterol, Vol. 16, Issue 7, 787–799 (2010).
12. Drucker D.J. The role of gut hormones in glucose homeostasis. Clin Invest., Vol. 117, Issue 1, 24–32 (2007).
13. Festi D., Schiumerini R., Eusebi L.H., Marasco G., Taddia M., Colecchia A. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome. World J Gastroenterol, Vol. 20, Issue 43, 16079–16094 (2014).
14. Flora S.J., Saxena G., Gautam P., Kaur P., Gill K. Response of lead-induced oxidative stress and alterations in biogenic amines in different rat brain regions to combined administration of DMSA and MiADMSA. J Chem Biol Interact., Vol. 170, Issue 3, 209–220 (2007).
15. Galisteo M., Duarte J., Zarzuelo A. Effects of dietary fibers on disturbances clustered in the metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. Biochem., Vol. 19, 71–84 (2008).
16. Gallicchio L., Scherer R.W., Sexton M. Influence of nutrient intake on blood lead levels of young children at risk for lead intoxication. En Heal Pers., Vol. 110, No. 12, A767–A772 (2002).
17. Haliullina S.V. The clinical significance of zinc deficiency in the child. Organism. News of Modern Medicine, Vol. 6, Issue 3, 72–77 (2013). [in Russian]
18. Halttunen T., Salminen S., Tahvonen R. Rapid removal of lead and cadmium from water by specific lactic acid bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol., Vol. 114, Issue 1, 30–35 (2007).
19. Henning S.J., Rubin D.C., Shulman R. Ontogeny of the intestinal mucosa. In: Johnson L.R., editor. Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Raven press, New York, 571–610, (1994).
20. Hewitt J.E., Smith M.W. Thyroid hormone effects on lactase expression by rat enterocytes. J Physiol., Vol. 376, Issue 1, 253–265 (1986).
21. Hillman E.T., Lu H., Yao T., Nakatsu C.H. Microbial Ecology along the Gastrointestinal Tract. Microbes Environent., Vol. 32, Issue 4, 300–313 (2017).
22. Hooda S., Boler B., Serao M., Brulc J., Staeger M., Boileau T., Dowd S., Fahey G., Swanson K. 454 pyrosequencing reveals a shift in fecal microbiota of healthy adult men consuming polydextrose or soluble corn fiber. J Nutrition, Vol. 142, Issue 7, 1259-1565 (2012).
23. Kieffer D.A., Martin R.J., Adams S.H. Impact of Dietary Fibers on Nutrient Management and Detoxification Organs. Gut, Liver and Kidneys Adv Nutr., Vol. 7, Issue 6, 1111–1121 (2016).
24. Kolosova I.I. Effect of lead acetate, salts of heavy metals on reproduction. Bulletin of problems of biology and medicine, Issue 3, Vol. 2(103), 13–18 (2013). [in Russian]
25. Kuchkarova L.S., Kudeshova G.T. Effect of hydrocortisone on the juvenile and definitive system of disaccharide assimilation in rat small intestine. The European Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Issue 2, 4–6 (2016).
26. Kuchkarova L.S., Sadikov B.A. Role of hydrocortisone and thyroxine in the transmission of environment signals on the nerboen small intestine function. Uzb biol J., No. 1–2, 36–41 (2003). [in Russian]
27. Leach J.D., Gibson G.R., Loo J.V. Human Evolution, Nutritional Ecology and Prebiotics in Ancient Diet. Bioscience and Microflora, Vol. 25, Issue 1, 1–8 (2006).
28. Lebenthal A., Lebenthal E. The ontogeny of the small intestinal epithelium. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, Vol.23, Issue 5S, S3–S6 (1999).
29. Leff T., Stemmer P., Tyrrell J., Jog R. Diabetes and Exposure to Environmental Lead (Pb). Toxics, Vol. 6, Issue 3, 54 (2018).
30. Logsdon C.D., Moessner J., Williams J.A., Goldfine I.D. Glucocorticoids increase amylase mRNA levels, secretory organelles and secretion in pancreatic acinar AR42J cells. Journal of Cell Biology, Vol.100, Issue 4, 1200–1208 (1985).
31. Lowry O.H., Rosebrough N.J., Farr A.L., Randall R.J. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 193, Issue 1, 265–275 (1951).
32. Mani D., Kumar C. Biotechnological advances in bioremediation of heavy metals contaminated ecosystems: an overview with special reference to phytoremediation. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 11, Issue 3, 843–872 (2014).
33. Martin A.M., Yabut J.M., Choo J.M., Page A.J., Sun E.W., Jessup C.F., Wesselingh S.L., Khan W.I., Rogers G.B., Steinberg G.R., Keating D.J. The gut microbiome regulates host glucose homeostasis via peripheral serotonin. PNAS, Vol. 116, Issue 40, 19802–19804 (2019).
34. Metwally El S.A.M., Negm F.A., El-din R.A.S., Nabil E.M. Anatomical and histological study of the effect of lead on hepatocytes of albino rats. International Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Vol. 3, Issue 4, 34–45 (2015).
35. Morakinyo A.O., Ajiboye K.I., Oludare G.O., Samuel T.A. Restraint Stress Impairs Glucose Homeostasis Through Altered Insulin Signalling in Sprague-Dawley Rat. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences, Vol. 31, Issue 1, 23–29 (2016).
36. Murakami I., Ikeda T. Effects of diabetes and hyperglycemia on disaccharidase activities in the rat. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 33, Issue 10, 1069–1073 (1998).
37. Mushak P. Gastrointestinal absorption of lead in children and adults: Overview of biological and bio physicochemical aspects. Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability, Vol. 3, Issue 3–4, 87–104 (1991).
38. Patra R.C., Rautray A.K., Swarup D. Oxidative stress in lead and cadmium toxicity and its amelioration. Veterinary Medicine International, Vol. 2011, 457327 (2011).
39. Rakhimov K.R., Demidova I. Carbohydrates and their assimilation mechanisms. FAN, Tashkent, (1986). – 132 pp.
40. Roberfroid M., Gibson G.R., Hoyles L., Mc Cartney A.L., Rastall R., Rowland I., Wolvers D., Watzl B., Szajewska H., Stahl B., Guarner F., Responde F., Whelan K., Coxam V., Davicco M.J., Léotoing L., Wittrant Y., Delzenne N.M., Cani P.D., Neyrinck A.M. Meheust A. Prebiotic Effects: Metabolic and Health Benefits. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 104, Issue S2, S1–S63 (2010).
41. Kuchkarova L.S., Sadykov B.A., Ergashev N.A., Dustmatova G.A. Factors that regulate α-amylase activity in a growing organism. Pediatriya, No. 1–2, 114–117 (2007). [in Russian]
42. Sadikov B.A., Kuchkarova L.S., Karimova I.B., Dustmatova G.A. Ecologic factors and formation of digective system. Uzb biol J., No. 4, 9–11 (2006).
43. Sadikov B.A., Kuchkarova L.S., Ermatova S.A., Ergashev N.A. Digestive enzymes activity in offspring rats, fed under lactation by a ration, contaminated by heavy metals. Problems of Nutrition, Vol. 78, No. 2, 47–51 (2009). [in Russian]
44. Sakata S., Shimizu S., Ogoshi K., Hirai K., Ohno Y., Kishi T., Sherchand J.B., Utsumi M., Shibata M., Takaki M., Ueda M., Mori I. Inverse relationship between serum erythropoietin and blood lead concentrations in Kathmandu tricycle taxi drivers. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vol. 80, Issue 4, 342–345 (2007).
45. Sarbini S.R., Rastall R.A. Prebiotics: Metabolism, Structure and Function. Functional Food Reviews, Vol. 3, Issue 3, 93–106 (2011).
46. Schenk S., Davidson C.J., Zderic T.W., Byerley L.O., Coyle E.F. Different glycemic indexes of breakfast cereals are not due to glucose entry into blood but to glucose removal by tissue. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 78, Issue 4, 742–748 (2003).
47. Scott T.A. Jr, Melvin E.H. Determination of dextran with anthrone. Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 25, Issue 11, 1656–1661 (1953).
48. Sharma R., Barber I. Lead Toxicity and Postnatal Development of Gastrointestinal Tract Universal. Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology, Vol. 4, Issue 3, 121–133 (2014).
49. Shinder D.A., Rakhimov K.R., Usmanova O.D. Delay in natural decline of lactase activity in the small intestine of prematurely weaned rats as related to changes in their thyroid status. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology, Vol. 111, Issue 3, 453–459 (1995).
50. Slavin J. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits. Nutrients, Vol. 5, Issue 4, 1417–1435 (2013).
51. Stewart M.L., Timm D.A., Slavin J.L. Fructooligosaccharides exhibit more rapid fermentation than long-chain inulin in an in vitro fermentation system. Nutrition Research, Vol. 28, Issue 5, 329–334 (2008).
52. Thomas T., Pfeiffer A.F.H. Foods for the prevention of diabetes: how do they work? Diabetes Metab Res Rev, Vol. 28, Issue 1, 25–49 (2012).
53. Tsaih S.W., Korrick S., Schwartz J., Amarasiriwardena C., Aro A., Sparrow D., Hu H. Lead, Diabetes, Hypertension, and Renal Function: The Normative Aging Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 112, Issue 11, 1178–1182 (2004).
54. Ugolev A.M., Iezuitova N.N., Macevich Ts.G. et al. The investigation of men's digestive system (Review of modern methods). Nauka, Leningrad, (1969). – 216 pp. [in Russian]
55. Ugolev A.M. Digestive evolution and principles of function evolution. The elements of modern functionalism. Nauka, Leningrad, (1985). – 544 pp. [in Russian]
56. Utzschneider K.M., Kratz M., Damman C.J., Hullarg M. Mechanisms linking the gut microbiome and glucose metabolism. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol. 101, Issue 4, 1445–1454 (2016).
57. Vernazza C.L., Rabiu B.A., Gibson G.R. Human colonic microbiology and the role of dietary intervention: introduction to prebiotics. In Prebiotics: Development and application. John Wiley and Sons, 1–28 (2006).
58. Vyas U., Ranganathan N. Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics: Gut and Beyond. Gastroenterology Research and Practice, Vol. 2012, 872716 (2012).
59. Wang J., Ji H. Influence of Probiotics on Dietary Protein Digestion and Utilization in the Gastrointestinal Tract. Current Protein and Peptide Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, 125–131 (2019).
60. Wani A.L., Ara A., Usmani J.A. Lead toxicity: a review. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, Vol. 8, Issue 2, 55–64 (2015).
61. Weickert M.O., Mohlig M., Koebnick C., Holst J.J., Namsolleck P., Ristow M., Osterhoff M., Rochlitz H., Rudovich N., Spranger J. Pfeiffer A.F. Impact of cereal fibre on glucose-regulating factors. Diabetologia, Vol. 48, Issue 11, 2343–2353 (2005).
62. Weickert M.O., Spranger J., Holst J.J., Otto B., Koebnick C., Möhlig M., Pfeiffer A.F.H. Wheat-fibre-induced changes of postprandial peptide YY and ghrelin responses are not associated with acute alterations of satiety. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 96, Issue 5, 795–798 (2006).
63. General Assembly of the World Medical Association. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. JAMA, Vol. 310, No. 20, 2191–2194 (2013).
64. Wotzka S.Y., Kreuzer M., Maier L., Zünd M., Schlumberger M., Nguyen B., Fox M., Pohl D., Heinrich H., Rogler G., Biedermann L., Scharl M., Sunagawa S., Hardt W.-D., Misselwitz B. Microbiota stability in healthy individuals after single-dose lactulose challenge–-A randomized controlled study. PLoS ONE, Vol. 13, Issue 10, e0206214 (2018).
65. Zadjali S.A., Nemmar A., Fahim M.A.A.Y., Azimullah S., Subramanian D., Yasin J., Amir N., Hasan M.Y., Adem A. Lead exposure causes thyroid abnormalities in diabetic rats. Int J Clin Exp Med, Vol. 8, Issue 5, 7160–7167 (2015).
66. Zeevi D., Korem T., Zmora N., Israeli D., Rothschild D., Weinberger A., Ben-Yacov O., Lador D., Avnit-Sagi T., Lotan-Pompan M., Suez J., Mahdi J.A., Matot E., Malka G., Kosower N., Rein M., Zilberman-Schapira G., Dohnalová L., Pevsner-Fischer M., Bikovsky R., Halpern Z., Elinav E., Segal E. Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses. Cell, Vol. 163, Issue 5, 1079–1094 (2015).
67. Zoghi A., Khosravi-Darani K., Sohrabvandi S. Surface binding of toxins and heavy metals by probiotics. Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 14, No. 1, 84–98 (2014).
68. Zulian J.G., Hosoya L.Y.M., Figueiredo P.M., Ogias D., Osaki L.H., Gama P. Corticosterone activity during early weaning reprograms molecular markers in rat gastric secretory cells. Sci Rep, Vol. 7, 45867 (2017).
Kuchkarova, Lubov S.; Karimova, Irodakhon I.; Kudeshova, Gulchekhra T.; and Kayumov, Khasan Yu.
"The effect of prebiotics on intestinal digestion of carbohydrates in lead intoxicated rats,"
Bulletin of National University of Uzbekistan: Mathematics and Natural Sciences: Vol. 2:
4, Article 5.